This course examines the changes in White House speech writing, from the earliest ghostwriters in George Washington's administration to contemporary presidential speechwriters. We will examine speech writing drafts from Truman, Kennedy, Carter, and George H.W. Bush as well as speech files from Lady Bird Johnson and Barbara Bush. Video and audio clips from former White House speechwriters describing the process will be included. We'll view speechwriters' drafts and the final products in both written and video formats.